Nuclear ReactorsBy George Jason and Joe
Introduction. A nuclear reactor is a device that creates a chain reaction to generate power. Useing the ideas of chemistry and the knowledge of atoms we have been able to find a way to produce a kind of thermal energy known as radiation and harness it. The United States has a large number of Nuclear Reactors all of which are located close to water as well as being on the eastern seaboard.

How Is A Reactor Built?

A reactor is built with a lot of components to make it work the way it does.
The fuel that makes the reactor work essentially is Uranium.
The device that slows down the neutrons that come from the fission which is called the Moderator.
The Control rods which absorb the slow or fast ones depending on which the scientist picks. This is used to prevent overheating but also to make sure that enough heat is used to produce steam and power the Turbine.
It is also built with a Coolant which is a fluid circulating through the core that decreases the temperature. The tubes that carry the coolant are referred to as the pressure tubes. The steam generator converts the steam to energy or electricity. these are the basic components to have a reactor


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Safety Precautions


One of the main Standard Safety Procedures that the United States has in place for reactors is known as
Prevention, Monitoring, and Action. This is used to signify what steps are taken and in what order. The first part is prevention, when the reactor is built all safety concerns must be talked out and prevention put into place. Monitoring is just something as simple as checking and changing fuel rods and making sure every pipe and cord is working at optimal levels. The last area, action, is used to signify the idea of acting fast and with efficiency to stop any potential disaster that may be happening or about to happen and stop it.


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There are several safety precautions that should be followed if you work in a nuclear reactor.
There are generally three types of safety that a reactor has. The first one is the control of radioactivity, which is pretty self explanatory. The maintenance of core cooling, which maintains the core temperature. A scientist who does this must wear a full radiation suit that would protect them from any radioactive particles that may be in the environment. The third one is to contain the radioactive substances.



How Does A Reactor Work

Summary - In the United States we have two kinds of reactors who both produce energy in two different ways


Currently there are 6 nuclear power plants in the state of New Jersey. In the US right now there are currently 106 nuclear power plants and 437 in the entire world. These power platns produce around 372,210 electronic net output.


There are two kinds of nuclear reactors used in the United States.

Pressurized Water Reactor

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This is the first kind of reactor.
The idea is to keep the water under pressure so that it heats up but will not boil. The heated water is then circulated through a set of tubes in steam generators, allowing the water in the steam generators to get turned into steam, which then turns the turbine generator. The left over steam is then pushed back into the condenser and can be reused.


Boiling Water Reactor



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BWRs actually boil the water. In both types, water is converted to steam, and is then recycled back into water by a part called the condenser, to be used again in the heat process.

The main difference between these two is that a Boiling water reactor, boils the water! Who would have though!

Breeder Reactor


A old idea for nuclear reactors back in the 50's and 60's. This reactor used uranium 238 and thorium 232. These reactors looked better on paper due to there much better fuel economy but were beaten out by other reactors due to there being more uranium reserves found making it practical for other reactors to be used.

Other information


The radioactive wast that is left over is graded on a scale of very low to very high. For example a very low level waste would be something not seen has harmful to humans such as disposed metal. With very high being the actual nuclear metals. This waste is stored in a water filled "swimming pool" that they sit until another solution is made.

Another way of storeing is by victrofication, a long terms storage that takes the fuel rods and places them in a hot rotating tube. This is used to evaperate the water left inside and ends up creating a form of glass.
Multiple Choice - OK ~Mr. C.


Further Reading / Works Cited page.
http://www.howstuffworks.com/nuclear-power.htm

http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/Nuclear-Fuel-Cycle/Nuclear-Wastes/Radioactive-Waste-Management/

http://www.euronuclear.org/info/encyclopedia/n/nuclear-power-plant-world-wide.htm

http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/basic-ref/students/animated-bwr.html